Tuesday, February 5, 2008

Trains of the future

The MAGLEV

There's something very unusual about these futuristic trains. They don't have any wheels! Instead, they float above the track. Maglev is short for magnetic levitation [mag-NET-ick lev-ee-TAY-shun] which means using magnets to make the train rise up from the track, and it means they can go faster. Some Maglevs have already been built in Germany and Japan, where trains have already run at an incredible 552kph (343 mph) on a test track. It is expected that Maglev trains will reach speeds of up to 800 kph (500 mph) by 2020.
Train experts are proposing an even more futuristic development of Maglevs. It is envisaged that these 'floating' trains would run through vacuum tubes. A vacuum is a space without any air in it. It would mean trains could go faster - up to 3,000 kph (1,684 mph). Not only is it super-fast, but it means it wouldn't take as much energy as other kinds of transport.
Vacuum tubes could be built all over the world - under the sea and across continents. A tube could be built under the Atlantic Ocean, and that would mean you could get from England to America in less than two hours (it takes 6 or 7 hours by plane). It would cost about £20 billion to build a tube like that.

Tony Roche, who is the president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers said "Some might see this as a pie-in-the-sky idea, but a lot can happen in 50 years."

This was written by Robin Gray of the National Railway Museum.

5 comments:

tonyon said...

Hexapentas for space elevator future

tonyon said...

...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around its own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES (each cable with a Track for Train, for both trains crossing ↓↑) FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS♦ (minor diagonal of rhombus is the gyration-axis of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the Cable towards a higher counterweight... if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s Axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = ½ Wheel´s radius = 125 mts (axis could be a resistant hollow tube with for example 20 mts in diameter with an adequate wall´s thickness, hollow which could serving how tank of anything, e.g. air, or tank of frozen water storage no totally full, for volume expansion from liquid to ice without tank, Axis, breaking, thawing using solar-heat)... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts. Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide (separation at both sides between Cable and Circumference of the gyratory Wheel, approx.= 5 mts, adjusting this separation installing an Axis with major or minor length, as much as shorter Axis...stronger and, for easy train´s passing, an angle nearer to 180º value in both rhombus´s-vertex, minor diagonal, where are the Big Soundless-♫-Bearings of Axis´s-insertion...a few Electrical Motors fed with Solar Energy maintain automatically the gyration-speed counteracting the slow braking by friction from the Bearings...besides of Bearings: main Maglev system also for the gyration and Axis´s supporting, leaving the Bearings only how secondary security system...with a slight roominess between each Bearing and its exterior subjection, into the roominess all around...little solid Pistons radial extensible and retractable... Axis´s subjection: extensible ON, with Bearings; extensible OFF, with Maglev. With a sufficient Cables tension coming from the counterweight, if Axis resists: the rhombus structure is undeformable)*10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds, angular-speed = 11.61º/sec, linear-speed (tangential) = 182 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO THE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows its geostationary orbit, the Wheel does Not changes the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not Precession forces actuating (and thus there is Not torsion´s force against Track)...

tonyon said...

(2)...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... Wheel with maneuver´s tangential-rockets for gyration´s start, or...gyration emergency stop...and maneuver´s axial-rockets for reorientation of Wheel´s axis, if it is necessary: because the Earth´s axis slightly and very slowly goes oscillating cyclically due to nutation and precession...that oscillation evidently produces transversal traction pulling of the Track towards aside from its anchoring on equator, thus would have an also slight pendular movement side to side and it would produce precession´s movements of the Wheel´s axis and thus a not wished torsion of the Track...but the System must supporting lateral charges, in the same orbital plane and thus without precession´s problems on the Wheel´s axis, of acceleration against W→Track←E produced by the Coriolis effect when movement´s direction is perpendicular to the gyration´s axis, that lateral charge is maximum on equator (there, a vertical movement is perpendicular tø Earth´s axis) and zero on poles (there, a vertical movement is parallel tø Earth´s axis); upwards charge to West, downwards charge to East; the gyroscopic-rigidity contributes for maintaining the gyration-axis perpendicular to the orbital trajectory... When the Maglev Train slowly arrives (Train with one opened ╚╝ side in its technical maglev-zone train´s all along over Track for can passing for both tracks: main-Track/rhombus track/again main-Track), using now cogwheels on Zipper-Track (zippers installed on the same Maglev-Track), Train stops in Geo 0g-Station placed over one Extreme of the Gyration-Axis, next to «Port for Spacecrafts»... Passengers disembark and entering into gyratory circular corridor, they take now the interior-elevator of one of the Wheel´s hollow-radius (also could be an exterior-elevator running for a simple zipper-radiuds), and tunnel "descending" till Hotel into the final Zone-1g...where while Station-Wheel goes turning, the immense O2 producer Hydroponics Garden receives a filtered Sun light...and there are Earth´s awesome views.

tonyon said...

☼↓↓▓0.08g▬▬▬←▬▬▬▬▬↓☺▬▬♦1g▬→▬▬1g...Space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... Faraway high beyond Earth surface at 150,000 kms...fast orbital speed 11.4 kms/sec...with only 0.08g centrifugal, 0.8 mts/sec² (a person who has 80 kgs ↓ gravitational force on Earth equator radius=6378.1 kms; over there with a radius=156378.1 kms only has 6.64 kgs ↑ centrifugal force...gravitational force downwards minus centrifugal force upwards)...could be, if someday is cheap the maglev-track, the counterweight Terminal Orbital Station-Ramp... Awaits passengers in Earth-Station a hyperspeed vertical electric Train of Magnetic Levitation... "Spatial Train coming from Orbital Station-Ramp and Orbital Station-Wheel at these moments arriving will depart again after one hour, passengers with Moon destination please embark on SHIP-COACH when will be hooked at Train´s end"... (((if...Train´s mass=10 Tm and its vertical max-speed=10000 kms/h...CORIOLIS´s EFFECT AGAINST TRACK ↓to East, ↑to West: acceleration=0.4 mts/sec², FORCE=0.41 Tm... How Track is attached on Earth´s equator, this Lateral Thrust occur in the same orbital plane, orbit forward or backward, and thus almost there are Not Precession´s problems in the System...except because due to slight cyclic oscillation (nutation and precession) of Earth´s axis, would that doing each a certain time a little correction, with their own axial maneuver´s rockets, for reorientation of Wheel´s Axis)))...medium-speed = 5,000 kms/hour: Earth/Orbital Station-Wheel, distance = 35,786 kms...total travel time = 7 hours... Orbital Station-Wheel/Orbital Station-Ramp, distance = 114,214 kms...total travel time = 23 hours... Well seized from retractable cogwheels, with slow-speed at the beginning travel of strong gravitation from Earth, with conventional Zipper-Track: MAGLEV-ON...COGWHEELS-ON... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►...

tonyon said...

(2)...space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... "Passengers please belts"...starting horizontal from station, when train goes climbing (100 kms/hour) is VERTICAL, looking upwards...vertical-train with special zig-zag corridor with protections and seats also in the center for avoiding passengers fall down in straight line till coach´s bottom... Already enough far (100 kms height: that train still would weight...9692 kgs↓ - 35 kgs↑ = 9.65 Tm↓, thus its maglev strength would must be at least 10 Tm↑ thrust...), with some minor gravitational Earth attraction: Cogwheels off... Here we go...goooooo!...constant acceleration upwards...Maglev hyperspeed→... Already braking enough near from each Station...slow-speed, changes propulsion system again: COGWHEELS on... Entering in slow-track on rhombus structure... 7 hours: Half length above half length below through Station´s floor, Train is on rhombus inclined track at zero-speed, near from Water-Recycling Plant with carbon nanotube´s filters...and the other Air-Filtering Plant with catalysts...the passengers disembark in weightlessness: Geo 0g-Station...passing from static-platform to gyratory circular corridor, go taking soon an interior-elevator in one of the hollow-radius and "descending"...finally, the passengers have arrived at destination: Wheel centrifuge 1g-Station, with its gyration´s-axis perpendicular to the orbital trajectory... A Wheel with 500 mts in diameter, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds (((10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one...a person with 80 kgs mass, would have in each Floor a centrifugal force:... Floor 1: 1.04g=84 kgs... Floor 2: 0.94g=75 kgs... Floor 3: 0.84g=67 kgs... Floor 4: 0.73g=59 kgs... Floor 5: 0.63g=50 kgs... Floor 6: 0.52g=42 kgs... Floor 7: 0.42g=34 kgs... Floor 8: 0.31g=25 kgs... Floor 9: 0.21g=17 kgs... Floor 10: 0.1g=8.4 kgs)))...it gyrating into 4 cables, each cable with a track for Train, a rhombus structure forming for Wheel´s supporting...